These mistakes are embarrassing.
5. Mars Climate Orbiter
In December 1998, NASA launched a probe that was destined for Mars, to study the climate and atmosphere of our closest planetary neighbour. Unfortunately, on September 23rd, 1999, the probe ‘encountered’ Mars at a lower orbit than planned, which resulted in burning up, and a rather embarrassing $125 million loss for NASA. The cause of failure? Units. One part of the probe’s software was producing data in imperial pound-seconds, whereas another part was expecting that same data, but formatted as newton-seconds. Even worse, an investigation found that navigators had highlighted the discrepancy in numbers before, but their concerns were swept under the rug.
NASA’s Genesis probe was tasked with a fairly simple mission: collect samples of solar wind and return to Earth with it. Most of the mission went well: the probe launched atop a Delta II rocket in 2001, spent 850 days collecting samples, and then aimed itself back home. Unfortunately, a normal parachute landing might’ve damaged the samples, so NASA elected to go with the (only slightly crazy-sounding) plan of having a helicopter hook the ‘chute mid-flight. As it turned out, the helis didn’t even get a chance to see if that would’ve worked: the chute never deployed, and Genesis crash-landed at just under 200 mph. In the end, scientists were able to salvage some of the samples, and the mission wasn’t a total write-off. But still, having your $294 million satellite crash into the desert while watching the whole thing from a helicopter can’t be the greatest experience.
Things malfunctioning in space is kinda to be expected — there’s a lot to go wrong up there. But that’s not what happened with NOAA-19, one of a constellation of weather satellites. During the manufacturing stage in Sunnyvale, California, the engineers needed to rotate the satellite to work on it. Sadly, they forgot to check whether or not the satellite was bolted down before doing so, and the entire multi-million-dollar satellite ended up on its side. Repairs cost $135 million. Oops.
Of course, Americans don’t get all the glory in this list. South Korea is a rather recent but nonetheless keen entrant into the space race. As you’d expect from a brand-new space programme, though, things don’t always go to plan. The very first rocket South Korea launched atop their Naro-1 rocket. The motors actually functioned fine, but the payload fairing failed to separate. That weight imbalance dragged the rocket down, meaning that the payload failed to ever reach orbit. Rather, the $400 million satellite burnt up on re-entry.
Unlike most things on this list, the Russian Express-AM4 satellite didn’t explode on launch, or burn up in someone’s atmosphere. Rather, the advanced telecommunications satellite just got lost. Launched back in August 2011, the satellite seemed to launch just fine, and even separated from its upper stage. After that, however, it vanished off the US Space Surveillance radar system. It was eventually relocated, but far off its original orbit, and as such couldn’t fulfil the role it was sent up there for. Eventually, a year later, it was ‘intentionally destroyed’ somewhere over the Pacific Ocean.